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English

This guide will help students and faculty locate sources for English and literature research.

 

 

Primary and Secondary Sources

 

Primary Sources

 

Primary Sources

Primary sources are materials created at the time of an event. The author is describing their own research. 

  • Autobiographies
  • Diaries
  • Interviews
  • Letters
  • Speeches


              

Examples of Primary Sources

Examples of Primary Sources

  • Artifacts: clothing, coins, furniture, pottery, etc.
  • Audio/Visual recordings
  • Autobiographies
  • Census and demograpic records
  • Diaries
  • Dissertations
  • Experiments, clinical trials
  • Government documents
  • Interviews
  • Journal articles/original research
  • Legal documents
  • Letters and correspondence
  • Manuscripts
  • Maps and atlases (contemporary)
  • Memoirs
  • News footage
  • Official records
  • Pamphlets
  • Papers delivered at conferences
  • Photographs
  • Posters
  • Speeches

 

Search Tips

Search Tips for Primary Sources

To search for primary sources, use the name of the subject and description of the source:

  • "Mass incarceration" AND Speeches
  • Feminists AND Diary
  • "Gulf War Syndrome" AND Study
  • "Hillary Clinton" AND Interview
  • "Martin Luther King" AND Speech
     

Secondary Sources

 

Secondary Sources

Secondary sources interpret and analyze primary sources. Secondary sources reflect an author's opinion.

  • Biographies
  • Books
  • Criticism
  • Essays
  • Histories
  • Reviews

 

Examples of Secondary Sources

Examples of Secondary Sources

  • Biographies
  • Books that discuss or analyze a topic
  • Commentaries
  • Criticisms
  • Encyclopedias
  • Indexes and abstracts
  • Journal or magazine articles from previous research
  • Newspaper articles
  • Reviews of art, books, movies, etc.
  • Textbooks

 

Search Tips

Search Tips for Secondary Sources

To search for secondary sources, use the name of the subject and the description of the source:

  • "Ain't I a woman?" AND Review
  • "American Revolutionary War" and Book
  • "Harriet Tubman" AND Biography
  • "Sinners in the hands of an angry God" AND Criticism
  • Terrorism AND Book

Databases